The history of computers at Moscow State University goes back to the mid-fifties of the 20th century when Research Computing Center of Moscow State University was founded in 1955 and equipped with up-to-date computing hardware. This made it possible for university researchers to solve many challenging problems in meteorology, satellite and manned space flights, aerodynamics, structural analysis, mathematical economy, and other fields of science. Between 1955 and the early 1990s, more than 25 mainframe computers of various architecture and performance were installed and actively used at Moscow State University.

Since the end of the 1990s, Moscow State University has begun to exploit high-performance computing systems based on cluster technologies. The first high-performance cluster installed at Moscow State University in 1999 was the first one in Russian education and science institutions. It was able to perform 18 billion operations per second. Now, Moscow State University Supercomputing Center has two systems included in the Top500 list: “Lomonosov-2” and "Lomonosov". Other MSU supercomputers are SKIF MSU “Chebyshev” and IBM Blue Gene/P. The major computing facility of the Center is the “Lomonosov” supercomputer with peak performance at 1.7 PFlops and "Lomonosov-2" with the peak of 2,5 PFlops.

Today there are more than 2500 users of Moscow University Supercomputing Center from MSU, institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and other educational and scientific organizations of Russia with over 600 research and educational projects. The main areas of fundamental research with supercomputer applications are of a wide range: magnetohydrodynamics, quantum chemistry, seismology, drug design, geology, material science, global climatic changes, nanotechnology, cryptography, bioinformatics, bioengineering, astronomy, etc. In recent years, the range of supercomputer applications has expanded incredibly and Moscow State University is looking forward to reach exaflops frontiers.

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